Max Rady College of Medicine

Concept: Employment

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Concept Description

Last Updated: 2001-11-05

Status of Employment

    There are two categories of workers: those who work for others and those who work for themselves. These groups can be further subdivided into seven classes of work force members:

    1 - Employees

    • Employees (private): those who work as employees of a private firm or business.

    • Employees (government or public): those who work for a local, provincial, or federal government, for a government service or agency, a crown corporation, or a government-funded public establishment such as a school (including universities) or a hospital.

    2 - Self-employed

    • Working owners of incorporated business: working owners of an incorporated business, farm, or professional practice. This group has two components:

      1. With paid help.

      2. Without paid help.

    • Working owners of unincorporated businesses and other self-employed: working owners of a business, farm, or professional practice that is not incorporated and self-employed persons who do not have a business (for example, baby-sitters, newspaper carriers).

    • Unpaid family workers: persons who work without pay on a farm or in a business or professional practice owned and operated by another family member living in the same dwelling.

Status of Unemployment

    The unemployed consists of four categories of individuals:

    1. Those who are without work, have actively looked for work in the past four weeks, and are available for work at a given time.

    2. Those who have been laid off from a job to which they expected to return.

    3. Students.

    4. Those not working at a given time but who have definite arrangements to start a new job in four weeks or less.
Unemployment Rate

    This refers to the unemployed labour force expressed as a percentage of the total labour force in an area, group, or category.


  • Frohlich N, Derksen S, Carriere KC. The Socioeconomic factor index (SEFI) for 1986, 1991, and 1996 (unpublished).

Related concepts 

Related terms 


  • Frohlich N, Mustard C. A regional comparison of socioeconomic and health indices in a Canadian province. Soc Sci Med 1996;42(9):1273-1281. [Abstract] (View)
  • Kraut A, Mustard C, Walld R, Tate R. Unemployment and health care utilization. Scand J Work Environ Health 2000;26(2):169-177. [Abstract] (View)
  • Martens P, Frohlich N, Carriere K, Derksen S, Brownell M. Embedding child health within a framework of regional health: Population health status and sociodemographic indicators. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2002;93((Suppl)(2)):S15-S20. [Abstract] (View)
  • Mustard CA, Derksen S, Berthelot JM, Wolfson M, Roos LL. Age-specific education and income gradients in morbidity and mortality in a Canadian province. Soc Sci Med 1997;45(3):383-397. [Abstract] (View)
  • Mustard CA, Derksen S, Berthelot J, Wolfson MC, Roos LL, Carriere KC. Socioeconomic Gradients in Mortality and the Use of Health Care Services at Different Stages in the Life Course. Winnipeg, MB: Manitoba Centre for Health Policy and Evaluation, 1995. [Report] [Summary] (View)
  • Statistics Canada. Canada Census 1986 Unemployment Definitions. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada; 2000.(View)
  • Statistics Canada. Guide to the Labour Force Survey (Catalogue 71-543-GIE). Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada; 1997.(View)
  • Zierler A (1995). Summary: Socioeconomic Status and Health Care Services.(View)


  • unemployment

Contact us

Manitoba Centre for Health Policy
Community Health Sciences, Max Rady College of Medicine,
Rady Faculty of Health Sciences,
Room 408-727 McDermot Ave.
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg, MB R3E 3P5 Canada